What Causes Restaurants to Fail?

What Causes Restaurants to Fail?

Opening a restaurant is often seen as a dream for many people. The idea of being your own boss, creating delicious dishes from family recipes or trains abroad, and providing a lively, welcoming dining experience is very appealing to both seasoned chefs and home cooks alike.

For entrepreneurs, a restaurant can represent an ideal small business, allowing creativity and self-expression through food. Customers also love the variety and social experience of eating out. With the rise of foodie culture, restaurants get built up in our imaginations as places of culinary magic.

However, behind the scenes, the restaurant industry is notoriously difficult. Despite the appeal of starting this type of business, restaurants have huge failure rates. It’s estimated that approximately 60% of restaurants fail within the first year, and 80% close within 5 years. The margins for error are incredibly slim.

So what leads so many restaurants to fail and dash the dreams of passionate owners? There are a wide variety of factors that can contribute to a restaurant’s demise. Unpredictable challenges like economic downturns, rising food costs, and staffing issues can affect any restaurant. But often the failure is due to fundamental business flaws in the concept, planning, or execution.

In this article, we’ll take an extensive, in-depth look at the major underlying reasons restaurants fail. Going beyond superficial causes, we’ll examine the core mistakes and pitfalls that cause most places to go under. These issues span difficulties with budgets, location, marketing, menus, and more. We’ll also explore what savvy owners can do during the planning stages and after opening to help their business beat the odds.

With creativity and diligence, many of these failure points can be anticipated and overcome. While the restaurant business is undeniably tough, success is still attainable for those with sufficient passion, preparation, and adaptability.

High Costs

One of the biggest and most constant challenges facing new restaurants are the extremely high costs involved in opening and operating the business. Starting a restaurant requires significant upfront capital for necessities like renting or purchasing a space, extensive renovations, kitchen equipment like stoves and refrigerators, smallwares like dishes and utensils, inaugural food and beverage inventory, permits and licenses, health department fees, supplier accounts, POS systems, signage, website development, and initial marketing efforts. Many new and first-time owners drastically underestimate how much money is truly needed to start a viable, fully-functional restaurant.

They often project costs based on assumptions rather than concrete quotes, and end up severely undercapitalized. This lack of funding leaves them cash-strapped from the start and quickly leads to financial trouble when inevitable surprises and overages appear during opening.

Ongoing regular costs after launching are also a huge and constant struggle for most restaurants. Ingredients, labor, rent, utilities, maintenance, credit card processing fees, cleaning supplies, pest control, linens, and countless other operating expenses add up extremely quickly on a daily basis.

Insufficient sales revenue coupled with razor thin profit margins in the restaurant business means this avalanche of operating costs rapidly drains a restaurant’s finances if revenues can’t keep pace. Even established restaurants face frequent cash flow issues. But for a new restaurant it can be a death sentence.

Owners must accurately project both ongoing costs and expected sales volumes in meticulous detail during planning to have any hope of setting appropriate menu prices, controlling food and labor costs, and making the operation profitable long-term.

Poor Location

The location of a restaurant is absolutely critical to its success or failure. Choosing the wrong physical location can completely doom a restaurant from the very start. Ideal restaurant locations have high foot traffic from lots of passersby, ample and convenient parking, fast road access, and are overall easy for customers to access.

They are often located downtown in busy urban areas, within popular shopping centers and malls, close to major business parks and office districts, near schools or colleges, and in populated residential areas.

Restaurants situated in out-of-the-way spots with minimal visibility or pedestrian traffic will struggle mightily to attract enough customers to stay afloat. Location issues can also include picking a space in an oversaturated area with too much direct competition from existing restaurants.

If other similar restaurants already meet customer demand, a new entrant may see little interest. Additionally, changes over time like construction projects that hamper access or the closure of an anchor business that brought traffic can suddenly doom previously viable locations.

Owners must thoroughly evaluate traffic patterns, area demographics, competitive landscape, parking, public transit access, road visibility, and overall convenience when selecting a restaurant site. Locations should align with a restaurant’s target customers and complement, rather than directly compete with, nearby restaurants. Adaptability to changes in the surrounding area is also key.

Lack of Market Research

Far too many restaurant owners fail to conduct thorough market research before opening their business. They may rely primarily on word-of-mouth, personal hunches, or limited direct observation when picking out a restaurant concept, menu offerings, and location.

However, this level of informal observation is rarely enough to accurately determine if a specific restaurant theme, cuisine type, and menu will truly succeed and attract sufficient business in that particular spot.

In-depth market research is an absolutely essential process for maximizing a restaurant’s chances of success. This includes carefully analyzing area demographics to identify and understand your potential target customer base.

Directly surveying these prospective customers on their dining habits, preferences, and reactions to your restaurant concept can provide invaluable feedback for shaping the business. Evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing competing restaurants provides opportunities to differentiate. And assessing the overall demand for the type of cuisine or dishes you propose is critical for sizing the viability and niche for your concept.

Owners should thoroughly test proposed menus with extensive focus groups and make data-driven adjustments based on feedback before the restaurant ever opens. Conducting meticulous market research on all aspects of the concept during planning helps make smart, informed decisions when building the restaurant from the ground up. This gives the business the best possible chance of resonating with customers and succeeding long-term.

Limited Marketing

Effective, multifaceted marketing is absolutely vital for spreading awareness of a new restaurant, attracting customers, and prompting them to visit and spend money regularly. Many owners fail to dedicate sufficient time or resources to marketing both before and after opening their business. They may rely primarily on word-of-mouth or static signage and do little to actively reach customers beyond that limited promotion.

However, robust marketing campaigns utilizing print and digital advertisements, email newsletters, social media engagement, TV and radio spots, discounts, promotions, and PR outreach is almost always essential for a restaurant to drive in traffic and stay top of mind.

Developing and diligently executing a diverse, creative marketing plan while also tracking results takes substantial work. But it is a necessary and worthwhile investment that pays dividends through sustained visibility and patronage.

Ongoing marketing through channels like social media, email, and advertisements is also critical for engaging customers long-term after the initial launch. Consistent promotional efforts remind customers to come back while limited marketing allows a restaurant to be forgotten. Owners must dedicate sufficient resources and effort to robust, metrics-driven marketing from the very first day through the lifespan of the business.

Lack of Business Expertise

Opening and operating a successful restaurant requires specialized business, financial, legal, and management expertise. However, many new owners come into the industry with passion for food or hospitality but lack sufficient restaurant-specific experience. A novice owner may have inadequate business planning, budget forecasting, working capital evaluation, cash flow management, bookkeeping and accounting, inventory management, human resources, marketing, and overall business process know-how.

Additionally, properly navigating complex legal issues like liability, liquor licenses, music rights, zoning, and permitting as well as understanding food regulations, health codes, employee rules, taxes, and reporting can trip up first-time restauranteurs.

Recruiting, hiring, training, and managing staff is another area where many owners stumble. To survive in the fiercely competitive and demanding restaurant industry, owners must thoroughly educate themselves in all facets of the business and enlist skilled partners, managers, or consultants to fill knowledge gaps.

Proactive steps like taking small business, accounting, and hospitality courses, hiring an experienced chef or general manager, partnering with an industry mentor, working closely with lawyers and accountants, and diligently learning regulations are wise investments when lacking specific expertise.

A solid support team can help guide difficult decisions and avoid costly blunders caused by inexperience. However, a refusal to acknowledge and address personal shortcomings through education and advice can quickly lead to failure.

Poor Service and Management

Providing friendly, prompt, knowledgeable, and high quality service is arguably the most important factor and differentiator between a successful restaurant and one that fails. Diners will overlook minor food issues and go back to restaurants where they have an overall positive and enjoyable experience.

However, rude staff, slow and inattentive service, excessively long wait times, frequently incorrect orders, cold food, billing mistakes, and similar service problems can sink a restaurant’s reputation with little chance for recovery.

Owners must instill high customer service standards through extensive hiring vetting, thorough training at onboarding, regular coaching and feedback, and leading by example. Hiring genuinely warm, personable, detail-oriented people and managers is equally as important as technical skills. Customers will look past small kitchen mistakes if the servers make them feel welcome, appreciated, and cared for during the experience.

Owners also need strong managerial abilities to effectively hire and train teams, schedule employees, oversee inventory control and purchasing, enforce accountability, and ensure consistent food and service quality. Weak management and lack of leadership inevitably undermine the dining experience through disorganization and missteps. Successful restaurants require flawless operational execution through engaged management and inspired staff, which diners clearly notice.

Menu Issues

A restaurant’s menu acts as the core of the entire concept and significantly impacts whether the business flourishes or flounders. Owners often fail to dedicate sufficient time and effort to menu development, testing, and curation.

The menu offerings should seamlessly match the restaurant’s cuisine style, theme, and branding. Yet also appeal to the tastes and preferences of local customer demographics. Menus need sufficient diversity with options that satisfy different audiences like kids, seniors, gluten free, vegetarian, vegan, and the health-conscious.

Pricing is another major menu consideration. Menu items must be competitively priced in line with ingredient costs while achieving sufficient profit margins. Owners need balanced options across different price tiers.

An uneven menu with only budget items or expensive dishes deters broad appeal. Portion sizes relative to prices also impact perceptions of value. And the overall menu size affects kitchen operations. Too many unfocused options lead to food waste, while a very limited menu quickly bores regulars. Owners should invest time into carefully curating and costing out menu options, then make data-driven adjustments based on sales patterns, customer feedback, and competitive intelligence.

Failing to Innovate

In a dynamic, trends-driven industry like foodservice, innovation is necessary to keep customers excited rather than bored. Repeatedly serving the exact same tired dishes in a stale environment is unlikely to satisfy and impress customers beyond the short-term. Food enthusiasts looking for novelty, variety, and innovation will quickly lose interest in restaurants that lean on complacency rather than innovation.

Therefore, successful restaurants make it a priority to regularly introduce fresh dishes, ingredients, cooking techniques, flavor profiles, plate presentations, and more to keep their offerings exciting versus repetitive.

They also refresh interior design features, furniture, music, d├ęcor elements, and exterior aesthetics to keep the overall atmosphere current and inviting. Savvy owners continually track food and interior design trends while monitoring the local competitive landscape for inspiration to implement smart innovations that will delight and retain guests.

Lack of Restaurant Experience

Many first-time restaurant owners decide to jump into the industry having never actually worked in a restaurant role before. As a result, they often lack an insider’s view into the realities of day-to-day restaurant operations.

These novice owners tend to underestimate the sheer amount of effort and work involved in running a successful restaurant. They also underestimate the stress and pressure of making weekly payroll, satisfying demanding customers, and managing the controlled chaos of dinner rushes.

The steep learning curve to pick up all the necessary hands-on skills without any prior firsthand experience can severely impact performance and outcomes. First-time owners frequently enter the business with unrealistic expectations that quickly get crushed under the weight of the workload and responsibilities. This results in disappointment, frustration, burnout, and ultimately business failure.

Ideally, new owners should gain at least a year or two of experience working within a restaurant role to really understand the pace, pressure, and realities before diving in themselves. If working firsthand is not possible, partnering with an experienced consultant or hiring a general manager with years in the industry can help guide crucial business decisions. However, lacking any exposure to daily restaurant operations often compounds the already long odds by ensuring a first-time owner will feel overwhelmed and unprepared.

Inability to Adapt

The restaurant industry is constantly evolving and changing. Customer tastes and preferences naturally change over time. Exciting new competitors and cuisines emerge while outdated concepts fade away. Demographic shifts change neighborhood dining patterns as residences and businesses open or close nearby. Spikes in ingredient or labor costs quickly cut into already slim profit margins. Savvy, experienced owners understand restaurants must continually adapt and evolve to external changes in order to maintain success.

Restaurants where the owners cling stubbornly to outdated concepts, menus, interior designs, and ineffective ways of operating will slowly fall behind the times and customer expectations. Adapting means constantly re-evaluating and modifying elements like menu offerings, pricing structures, operating hours, entertainment options, staff training, and more based on current internal and external conditions impacting the business.

Owners must stay perceptive enough to identify changes in market dynamics along with flexible enough to thoughtfully react based on data instead of ego or nostalgia. An inability or unwillingness to adapt and evolve virtually guarantees diners will take their business elsewhere, dooming a restaurant to eventual failure.


Opening and operating a restaurant takes immense work, skill, and perseverance. The multitude of potential pitfalls, from astronomically high costs to poor management and service, illustrate why the industry experiences such a consistently high failure rate year after year. Even seasoned restauranteurs face major challenges in keeping their businesses afloat for the long-term.

However, this does not mean achieving restaurant success is impossible. With proper planning and effort, many of these common failure points can be anticipated and mitigated. Conducting meticulous market research, choosing a suitable high-traffic location, accurately forecasting and controlling costs, extensively marketing, emphasizing exemplary customer service, continually adapting to industry changes, and learning from experienced partners and mentors will all significantly improve a restaurant’s chances of thriving long-term rather than closing down.

Passion and grit will also be required in copious amounts to power through the long hours, stresses, and unpredictability inherent in the industry. However, for owners who educate themselves, carefully craft their concept, surround themselves with talent, and work tirelessly to execute their vision, the reward can be well worth the challenges. Beyond just profit, realizing the dream of creating a cherished dining destination ingrained in the cultural fabric of a neighborhood or town is an incredible legacy to achieve.

With ample persistence, dedication, knowledge, and support, any aspiring restauranteur can ultimately beat the daunting odds. For those unwilling to let obstacles block their ambitions, it is possible to open and sustain a restaurant that not only survives but thrives for years by focusing intently on the factors within their control.

Turning a lifelong passion into a thriving small business is difficult but profoundly fulfilling. With thorough preparation and unrelenting effort, anyone can make their restaurant success story a reality.